As I have already mentioned concrete is good in compression and is bad in tension. So it is very much required there should be something which will resist the tensile stresses also. Here comes the role of reinforcement, we use steel as reinforcement in most of the structure. Steel is good in tension. So when we combine concrete and reinforcement, the structure becomes good in tension and in compression both.
Concrete is the backbone of civil engineers. It is one of the most widely use construction material because of its own stand out efficiencies. It is a man made material , it is very much possible for us to tweak different properties of concrete mix. By changing the proportion of different materials used, we can alter the properties of concrete. The use is not only restricted to structural application but also extend to transportation engineering and environmental engineering.
Concrete is an economical material and it is very good in compression. But when we consider a complete structure, there will be different kind of forces and stresses .
Provide reinforcement where it is essential. Mostly in non load bearing structural elements we don’t prefer to use reinforcement.
In load bearing structures, it is quite obvious to use reinforcement. We should design reinforcement in the most efficient way so that its use is optimum. There are different designing procedures available for all the structural systems like beams, columns, foundations and slabs.
At the time of casting we embed the deformed steel bars or welded wire fabric within freshly made concrete. The steel provides strength to resist tensile stress where concrete is in tension, as in beams and slabs. It supplements the compressive strength of concrete in columns and walls; and it provides extra shear strength over and above that of concrete in beams.
Reinforced concrete is extremely durable and requires little maintenance. It is also fire resistant, and mostly the reinforced bar have a good scrap value. It can be recycled and reused. In the initial go it is costly but yes in the long run it becomes economical to use.
You can check these post to have an idea about beam design .
The reinforcement details of beam here and also
About side face reinforcement here.
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